The three major world religions of Islam, Christianity and Judaism are monotheistic faiths that worship one God.
All three traditions share common beliefs in prophets, divine revelation and the afterlife. They focus on moral rights, responsibilities and a faith-centred lifestyle. They are often referred to as the Abrahamic faiths, as Prophet Abraham is seen as the father of the prophets.
The Quran honours the Jews and Christians with a special acknowledgement as “People of the Scripture” and affirms the special relationship between Muslims, Jews and Christians – a shared, sacred bond as recipients of the word of God.
Each faith emphasises its covenant with God, through Moses for Judaism, Jesus for Christianity and Muhammad for Islam.
Islam is a continuation and renewal of Judaism and Christianity, and it encourages humankind to unite in finding the common ground.
Muslims express love and respect for all the prophets mentioned in the Jewish and Christian scriptures, who are also mentioned in the Quran. Muslims believe in Moses and Jesus, however they do not believe that Jesus was the son of God. Muslims believe that Jesus was a prophet born in a miracle birth to Mary. The Quran mentions Mary more often than the Bible, and mentions the story of Moses more than any other prophet, demonstrating the high-regard that Judeo-Christian figures have in Islam.
Prophet Muhammad advised the early Muslims to treat everyone with respect, whatever their faith or background.
He established a seventh century model for pluralism known as the Charter of Medina, an agreement with the Jews and pagans of the Arabian city of Medina which ensured security, protection of rights and respect for different beliefs.
It referred to the Jews, pagans, and Muslim inhabitants of Medina as belonging to ‘one community’. When a group of Christians later arrived in the city, Prophet Muhammad arranged for them to stay in the mosque where they held their own religious services.
Even on his deathbed, the Prophet encouraged protection for the Abrahamic faiths, stating: “I place in your trust the People of the Book, the Christians and Jews”.